Chess History

Beginning - 1799

0531 INDIA; Chess introduced into Persia from India during reign of Khusrau Nushirwan. (531-578).

0550 Chaturanga, earliest chess precursor, created in the Punjab.

0570 CHINA; Form of chess being played in China with dice.

0570 FABLES OF PILPAY written for Khusraw I Nushirawan (531-578)

0570 Muhammad born in Mecca.

0575 AFFAN; Uthman ibn Affan born. Muhammad's son-in-law.

0581 Umar I (Omar ibn al-Khattab) born. 2nd caliph. (ibn is 'son of')

0590 Chatrang was an accepted noble accomplishment.

0590 Khusraw II Parwiz, Sasanian king of Persia, comes to power

0600 Chaturanga reaches Persia.

0600 KARNAMAK; 1st reference to chess in literature, the Persian romantic KARNAMAK.

0600 VASAV; Chessmen mentioned in the Sanskrit fantasy romance, Vasavadatta by Subandhu.

0602 Muawiyah I born. Governor of Syria.

0606 SANSKRIT; Chess mentioned in a Sanskrit romance.

0610 Earliest chess pieces identified.

0610 Muhammad starts to preach.

0619 TALIB; Abu Talib, Muhammad's uncle, died.

0620 EGYPT; Chess introduced in Egypt.

0624 Hasan, Ali's son, born.

0625 Chaturanga mentioned in the Sanskrit, Harshacharita, by Bana.

0626 Husayn, Ali's 2nd son, born.

0628 PARWIZ; Khusraw II Parwiz dies; KARNAMAK written under his reign

0630 Chatrang (old Persian word for chess) developed from chaturanga.

0632 ALLAH; Rasul Allah (successor to the Messenger of God) was new name for Abu Bakr.

0632 BAKR; Abu Bakr, Muhammad's father-in-law, elected in Medina to lead. 1st caliph.

0632.06.08 Muhammad died.

0634 BAKR; Abu Bakr died.

0634 Umar I becomes 2nd caliph.

0638 Islamic conquest of Persia changes chatrang to shatranj.

0638 OMAR; The Caliph Omar sanctions chess among the Islamic people.

0638 PERSIA; start of conquest of Persia.

0640 Buddhists spread chatrang eastward.

0643 Omar b. al-Khattab, father-in-law of Muhammad, asked if chess was legal.

0644 AFFAN; Uthman ibn Affan becomes 3rd caliph.

0644 Umar I died.

0650 CHATRANG-NAMAK; Short romance written in Persian, Chatrang-namak, describing chess.

0651 Arabic conquest of Persia completed; shatranj popular.

0655 TALIB; Caliph Ali Ben Abu Talib, son-in-law of Muhammad, disapproves of chess for Muslims.

0656 AFFAN; Uthman ibn Affan assassinated in Medina by troops from Iraq and Egypt.

0656 Muawiyah does not recognize Ali. 1st Umayyad caliph.

0656 TALIB; Ali ibn Abu Talib, cousin and son-in-law of Muhammad becomes 4th caliph. (Shiite)

0657 Rival parties met to arbitrate dispute of successor.

0661 Hasan claimed caliph, but abdicated later.

0661 Muawiyah, 1st Umayyad (caravan merchants) Caliph, comes to power. Moves from Medina to Damascas.

0661 TALIB; Ali ibn Abu Talib assassinated.

0665 AL-ASI; Amr ibn al-Asi, Muslim general and conqueror of Egypt died. Chessplayer.

0665 JUBAIR; Sa'id Bin Jubair born. 1st to play blindfold.

0679 Hasan died.

0680 ALI; Imam Husayn ibn Ali, recognized as caliph by Kufan Shiites.

0680 CANONS; 50th rule of the canons forbids chess.

0680 Husayn assassinated in Iraq by Yazid. Shiite schism.

0680 Muawiyah I died.

0683 Yazid I ibn Muawiya, becomes caliph.

0683 Yazid, son of Muawiyah, died.

0685 Abdal-Malik ibn Marwan reigned. A chessplayer.

0690 JAPAN; Chess prohibited in Japan by the Emperor Jito.

0700 JUBAIR; Sa'id Bin Jubair, a Black judge, plays blindfold chess.

0705 MARWAN; Abdalmalik b. Marwan died. Earliest Umayyad calph associated with chess.

0705 Walid I ibn Abdalmalik becomes caliph.

0710 Walid I kills chessplayer when the player purposely played bad against him.

0712 Seville conquered by Arabs. Moorish invaders bring chess to Iberia.

0714 JUBAIR; Sa'id Bin Jubair died.

0714 Waldi I died. Killed a chessplayer who avoided beating the caliph.

0718 Abbasids (descendents of the Phophet's uncle Abbas) try to take the caliphate.

0720 LITERARY; 1st literary references to chess in Arabic.

0721 Abu al-Abbas born. 1st Abbasid caliph.

0725 Sulaiman ibn Yashar died. Disapproved chess.

0728 AL-FARAZDAQ; Arabic poet al-Farazdaq died. His will mentions pawns of chess.

0728 al-Ahwas died. Noted poet.

0735 Living chess introduced in Europe by Charles Martel (688-741).

0742 Hisham ibn Abdal-Malik died. Caliph and chessplayer.

0742 az-Zuhi died. Great laywer of the Umayyad period and chessplayer.

0747 Abbasids organize a rebellion in Iran.

0750 ABBASID; start of the Abbasid caliphs. Capital moved to Baghdad.

0750 Abbasid caliphs come to power in Baghdad. Document chess.

0750 Abu al-Abbas, 1st Abbasid caliph, comes to power.

0750 UMAYYAD; end of Umayyad Caliphs.

0763 AR-RASHID; Haran ar-Rashid born. Abbasid caliph of Islam (786-809). Patron.

0763 Harun ar-Rashid born. Abbasid caliph of Islam 786-809. 1st in his dynasty to playt chess.

0767 Abu Hanifa died

0770 WOMEN; 1st mention of women chessplayers.

0775 al-Mahdi ibn al-Mansur is 3rd Abbasid caliph.

0775 al-Mansur died. 2nd caliph of the new dynasty (Abbasids).

0776 ABDALAZIZ; Poet Abu Hafs Omar ibn Abdalaziz called ash-Shatranji, the chessplayer.

0780 Moorish invaders of Spain introduce chess to Western Europe.

0780 al-Mahdi write a letter to Mecca to give up chess, dice, and archery.

0785 al-Mahdi ibn al-Mansur died. 3rd of the Abbasid caliphs.

0786 al-Mumun born. A caliph.

0786 al-Rashid, Caliph of Islam, comes to power.

0790 CHESS PIECE; Earliest known chess piece dates to this period.

0795 CHINA; 1st reference to Chinese chess in the HUAN KWAI LU (Book of Marvels).

0795 Malik ibn Anas died.

0800 Al-Rushid, Caliph of Baghdad, 1st caliph to play chess.

0800 Chinese chess (Hsiang ch'i) introduced.

0800 Corr. game by Emperor Nicephorus and Haron Al-Rashid.

0800 Moors bring chess to Spain. Chess reaches Italy.

0800 ? al-Adli ar-Rumi born.

0801 Charlemagne (742-814) introduced to chess.

0802 Nicephorus of Byzantium writes to al-Rashid about chess.

0805 Ash-shafi'i, famous muslim lawyer, plays blindfold.

0808 AL AMON; Caliph Al Amon of Baghdad protested at being disturbed while playing.

0809 Harun ar-Rashid died. Abbasid caliph of Islam 786-809. 1st in his dynasty to playt chess.

0809 al-Amin ibn ar-Rashid reigns.

0809 ar-Rashid died.

0813 Abdullah al-Mamun, son of Harun ar-Rashid, reigned. Chessplayer.

0813 al-Amin ibn Harun ar-Rashid died. Chessplayer

0818 ALIYAT; Top players were Jabir al-Kufi, Rabrab, and Abu'n-Na'am. (aliyat)

0819 GM; Caliph Al-Ma'mun gives 4 players the grandmaster title.

0819 al-Mamum watched Rabrab, Jabir al-Kufi, and Abdalghaffar al-Ansari play chess in Baghdad.

0820 RUSSIA; Chess introduced in Russia thru the Caspian-Volga trade route..

0820 ash-Shafii died.

0833 Abdullah al-Mamun died.

0840 BILLAH; 1st chess problem composed by the caliph Billah.

0840 al-Aldi is considered the best chessplayer (aliyat)

0842 al-Aldi, authors 'a book of chess.'

0842 al-Mutasim ibn Harun ar-Rashid died. Chess problem attributed to him.

0842 al-Wathiq died.

0845 ar-Razi defeats al-Aldi in the presence of al-Mutawakki.

0847 al-Mutawakkil died.

0849 Reference to chess in Kashmir Haravijaya (Victory of Siva) by Ratnakara.

0850 Decimal chess invented. Board is 10 x 10. 1st use of dice in chess.

0855 Hanbal, Ahmad ibn died.

0858 al-Hallaj born.

0866 Al-Mutazz was playing chess when the head of his chief arrival was brought to him.

0869 al-Mutazz died.

0873 al-Ashari born. Philosopher.

0875 knight tour; 1st reference to knight's tour (turaga) in the Sanskrit Kavyalankara of Rudrata.

0880 AS-SULI; Abu as-Suli b. Author of 1st book on shatranj.

0880 Coordinate notation used in the Arab countries.

0892 al-Mutadid comes to power. Chessplayer.

0895 GREEKS; Chess introduced to the Greeks; call it zatrikion.

0900 EUROPE; Chess introduced into Europe.

0900 INDIA; Chessplayers in india wages their fingers in chess matches.

0902 al-Muktafi reigns; as-Suli is his best chess player.

0902 al-Mutadid died.

0905 AS-SULI; Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Yahya as-Suli, historian and top chess player.

0905 as-Suli defeats al-Mawardi in front of al-Muktafi.

0908 al-Muktafi died.

0908 al-Muqtadir reigns.

0910 al-lajlaj (the stammerer) is the first to publish openings.

0920 Chess pieces are given Persian names.

0922 al-Hallaj executed in Baghdad.

0932 al-Muqtadir died.

0932 ar-Radi reigns. Taught chess by as-Suli.

0935 al-Ashari died. Philospher.

0940 ar-Radi died.

0946 As-Suli died at Basra; strongest shatranj player in Baghdad.

0947 al-Ma'sudi, writes on the history of chess in India and Byzantine chess.

0960 CHINA; Further references of Chinese chess in the sung period.

0970 AL LAJLAJ; Abul Faraj Muhammad ibn Obaidallah, or al Lajlaj (the Stammerer) died. Pupil of as-Suli.

0973 Al-Beruni born. Wrote INDIA, which mentioned chess.

0975 Daqiqi begins the SHAHAMA, national epic of Persia

0980 YACHIA; Rabbi Abu Yachia describes chess in his Hebrew writings.

0988 Ibn an-Nadim writes on a whole succession of leading players and chessbooks.

0999 EINSIEDELIN; Earlist known literary account of chess in Europe, the Einsiedeln Verses, Switzerland.

0999 Versus de scachis is a 98-line poem describing the game & its rules.

1000 EUROPE; Chess is widely known throughout Europe.

1000 OTTO II; The daughter of Otto II (955-983) was "won" from a chess match.

1000 RUSSIA; Chess reaches Russia from Byzantium and from the the Vikings.

1005 AL-HAKIM; Chess is banned in Egypt by al-Hakim; and all chess sets were burned.

1007 DAMIANI; Petrus Damiani born.

1008.07.28 ERMENGUAD; 1st written reference to chess in Europe, from a will of Ermengaud I, Count of Urgel.

1011 Firdausi completes Shahnama or Book of Kings. Written in Persian. References to chess.

1013 ENGLAND; Chess brought to England with the Danish invasion.

1027 Canute, King of Denmark and England, learns to play chess from pilgrimmage to Rome.

1030 al-Beruni writes of an Indian form of 4-handed chess and dice. - INDIA

1035 Canute died.

1048 Al-Beruni died. Wrote INDIA which mentioned chess.

1050 GERMAN; Earliest reference of chess in the German literature, the Latin epic Ruodlieb.

1055 POEM; Chess poem, Ludus scacorum or Elgia de Ludo Scachorum, written.

1058 al-Mawardi died. Wrote about chess.

1060 William the Conqueror breaks board over head of Prince of France.

1061.12 DAMIANI; Cardinal Damiani of Ostin forbids the clergy to play chess.

1066 BRITIAN; Chess introduced into Britain.

1070 al-mutamid, Morrish king, regarded as a chess patron.

1072 Damiani died.

1078 ALFONSO; King Alfonso VI of Castile played chess with B. Ammar.

1078 Seville was spared from siege due to a chess game.

1080 Normans name the financial departments exchequer.

1081 ALEXIUS; Emperor Alexius I comes to power. Plays chess with his court.

1082 PERSIA; Regulations of chess in persia are published.

1089 Jayyash leads revolt after disguising himself as indian chessplayer.

1090 Boards with alternating light and dark squares are introduced.

1092 IBN-EZRA; Abraham Ben Ibn-Ezra b. in Tudela, Spain. Author of Hebrew chess works.

1093 CHURCH; Chess is condemned by the eastern orthodox church.

1097 FRENCH; 1st French reference to chess.

1098 KARBUGA; Turkish General Karbuga was playing chess during the siege of Antioch.

1100 Abu 'l-Fath Ahmad as-Sinjari writes chess manuscript containing 287 mansubat.

1100 Chess becomes accepted as a regular featue of noble life.

1100 EUROPE; 1st Central European reference to chess.

1100 POLAND; Chess introduced in Poland.

1100 ROLAND; The French Carolingian epic, Song of Roland, mentions chess.

1100 Shogi played in Japan.

1105 KHAYYAM; Omar Khayyam writes the 'rubaiyat,' using a chess game.

1106 Exchequer at Westminster created; referred to as the scaccarium or chessboard.

1106 Henry I allowed his brother Robert, Duke of Nomandy, to play chess while imprisoned for 28 years.

1106 KNIGHTLY; Chess included in a list of knightly accomplishments by Petro Alfonsi.

1108 ar-Raghib died. Wrote that the Medinese refused to give their daughters in marriage to chessplayers.

1110 ZONARES; John Zonares, Eastern Church monk, excommunicated chessplayers.

1112 Dauphin throws chess pieces at King Henry I after losing.

1115 BYZANTINE; The emperor of the Byzantine empire is a chess addict.

1119 CORRES; 1st corr game: Henry I (1068-1135) of England & Louis VI (1081-1137).

1120 LEWIS; Oldest known chess set, the Lewis chessmen, from this period.

1123 Kyayyam wrote the RUBAIYAT with chess references

1125 BYZANTINE; Chess is banned in some byzantine churches.

1128 St. Bernard (1090-1153) forbids the knights templars from chess.

1130 Draughts, a variant of chess, invented in the south of France using backgammon pieces.

1140 Al-Mubarak writes Arabic manuscript for Abd-al-Hamid (AH manuscript)

1140 IBN-EZRA; 1st chess poems in Hebrew, by Ibn-Ezra.

1140 QUEEN'S LEAP; The fers's (queen')s leap is introduced in Spain by Ibn-Ezra.

1144 Hyde Abbey, Winchester, destroyed by fire. Chessmen from King Cnut.

1148 Alexiad of Anna Comnena mentions Byzantine Emperor Alexius Comnenus playing chess.

1150 LEWIS; Bone chessmen were being made. Lewis chessmen dated here.

1150 Draughts (checkers) started in France.

1157 DANISH; A danish king saved himself by using a chessboard as a shield.

1167 IBN-EZRA; Abraham Ibn-Ezra died in London. Wrote several Hebrew works on chess.

1167 SPAIN; Earliest spanish reference to chess.

1173 ALGEBRAIC; A French manuscript uses algebraic notation.

1180 BRITISH; 1st British reference to chess, by a Winchester monk.

1189 PROBLEMS; 1st European reference to chess problems, by Gerald of Wales.

1190 NECKAM; Alexander Neckam devotes a chapter to chess in his treatise, On the Nature of Things.

1190 Neckam condemns chess for being frivolous.

1190 RICHARD I; King Richard I (1157-99) learns chess while on the crusades.

1195 MAIMONIDES; The rabbi Maimonides includes chess among the forbidden games.

1197 Abbot of Persigny writes to Countess of Perche warning her against chess.

1199 LACKLAND; John Lackland, King of England, was a keen chess player.

1200 Courier chess, played on a 12x8 board, introduced.

1200 Great chess, played on a 100 square board, introduced.

1208 SULLY; The bishop of Paris, Odo Sully, bans chess from the clergy.

1210 Morality of chess according to Pope Innocent III (1160-1216) written.

1212 Ferrand of Portugal hit his wife Jeanne over a game of chess.

1213 JOHN; King John was playing chess when his deputies from Rouen arrived to ask for his help against King Augustus.

1217 KHAN; Hulagu Khan, grandson of Genghis Khan, born.

1220 DICE; Chess is no longer played with dice to determine moves.

1221 Arabic manuscript (V)

1230 Astronomical chess introduced.

1230 Icelandic ST OLAF'S SAGA contains a chess incident. 1st appearance of chess in the Norse lands.

1240 FORBID; Chess forbidden to the clergy in Worcester, England.

1242 Al-Mustasim, Abbasid caliph, reigned

1250 DENMARK; The king of Denmark was captured while playing chess.

1250 LOUIX; King Louis IX (1214-1270) receives a fine chess set from Aladdin.

1250 Mabinogion, Welsh epic, attains written form. Chess mentioned.

1250 VETULA; Latin verse romance, the Vetula, by Richard de Fournival. Mentions chess.

1250 ? Cessole, Jacopo da, (Cessolis), born in Italy. Author of the most famous of chess moralities.

1252 JOHN; THE INNOCENT MORALITY chess allegory written by John of Wales.

1254.08.16 Court case about a chessplayer who stabbed his opponent to death.

1254.12 St Louis IX of France restricts chess to laymen.

1255.05.08 FRANCE; Provincial Council of Beziers in France forbids chess.

1257 Arabic manuscript now in British museum (BM manuscript)

1258 ABBASID; end of Abbasid caliphs.

1258 Al-Mustasim put to death by invading Mongols.

1258 Mongols sacked Baghdad.

1260 HENRY; King Henry III (1207-72) instructs the clergy to leave chess alone.

1262 Russian word for chess (shakmatny) is introduced.

1264 Quarrel over chess game; man stabs woman to death.

1265 Buzecca played 2 games blindfold, 1 OTB (+2=1) in Florence.

1265 KHAN; Hulagu Khan died.

1268 Conradon was playing chess in prison before being executed.

1271 DALMATION; Ruling dalmation towns of Yugoslavia was determined by a chess match.

1273 Cotton MS is the earliest English collection of chess problems.

1275 Cessole writes the most important of all moralities and most copied.

1275 PAWN; Option of pawn double move on the 1st move introduced in Italy.

1279 Chinese introduce new pieces to Chinese chess (siang ki)

1283 Alfonso manuscript completed. Compiled for Alfonso X, Castile King. Called Libro del Acedrex.

1283 Alfonso manuscript prescribed the use of a checkered board.

1283 Dice chess explained by King Alfonso X in his manuscript.

1290 Lombard lawyer, Guido de Baysio, formulate rules to govern chess.

1291 PECKMAN; The Archbishop of Cantebury, John Peckman, forbids chess.

1295 BONUS SOCIUS is 1st European MS using a coordinate notation.

1295 Bonus Socius, 1st compilation of chess problems, written in Lombardy.

1299 Priests were forbidden from playing chess.

1300 Cessole writes 'Book of the customs of men and the duties of nobles'. Chess morales. (liber de moribus)

1300 Gesta Romanorum, a chess morality compiled in England, written.

1309 HUGO; Ponce Hugo, Count of Ampurias, donates chessmen to the cathedral of Gerona.

1310 FORBID; Chess forbidden to the clergy in Germany (Council of Trier).

1317 Cessole in charge of the inquisition in Genoa.

1320 CARDS; Playing cards introduced.

1322 KALONYMOS; Jewish rabbi, Kalonymos Ben Kalonymos, condemns chess in his Eben Hohan.

1323 CHATRANG-NAMAK written; oldest of Pahlawi works

1328 ibn Taimiya (a Hanabalite) says chess can be played, but not for money.

1329 FORBID; Synod of Wurzburg, Germany forbids chess.

1330 Citadel chess invented. Extra square at each corner.

1331 al-jami plays 2 games blindfolded and a 3rd, simultaneously.

1335 Robert, King of Hungary, sent John, King of Bohemia, a chess set.

1336 Timur born. Mongol ruler and chess enthusiast,

1337 Ammenhausen writes about courier chess.

1340 persian 'treasury of sciences' includes 3 chapters on chess.

1347 CESSOLIS; 1st translation of the Cessolis morality into French.

1350 Margiolano of Florence is recognized as the leading blindfold player.

1360 Les Amoureux Eschecs written. Best example of romantic allegory.

1369 Chaucer (1343-1400) writes about chess in his poem The Book of the Duchess.

1370 ARRANGEMENT; Earlist known chess puzzle called arrangement.

1370 Arabic manuscript written; belonged to Sultan of Egypt; in Cairo; (C manuscript)

1370 GREGORY; Pope Gregory xi (1329-1378) is an avid chessplayer.

1374 Timur names his son shah-rukh after playing chess

1375 Charles V (1337-80) of France prohibits chess.

1380 William of Wykeleham, founder of Oxford, forbids chess.

1390.10.10 John I of Aragon requested a board and set at his lodging in Valencia.

1391 Charles D'Orleans b. Chess player and father of Louis XII.

1391 Orleans, Charles d' born. French prince and chessplyer.

1392 Charles VI (1368-1422) forbids chess.

1397.02.05 Louis, Duke of Orleans, purchased an elaborate chessboard.

1405 TIMUR; Mongol emperor Timur died.

1407 Louis, Duke of Orleans, died. Chessplayer.

1408 MOHAMMED; The Sultan Mohammed plays live chess in Grenada, Spain.

1410 Martin of Aragon is an avid collector of chess sets and books.

1412 LYDGATE; John Lydgate wrote Reson and sensuallyte, a romantic allegory.

1416 Jews of Forli banned all games of chance except chess.

1420 German king abandons the prohibition of chess.

1422 Cracow manuscript states that stalemate is a draw.

1422 Cracow poem attributes the invention of chess to Ulysses.

1425 ROYAL; 1st reference to chess as 'the royal game' in Lydgates translation.

1430 Charles VII (1403-61), King of France, is a chess addict.

1433 Charles the Bold, Duke of Burgundy, born. Strong chessplayer.

1437 JAMES I; King James I of Scotland was playing chess when he was murdered.

1440 CIVIS BONONIAI, collection of chess problems, incorporated in Florentine manuscript.

1446 Arabic manuscript (Man.)

1450 Arabic manuscript (H)

1450 PROBLEM; Custom of attaching to each problem an author.

1454 CIVIS; Best copy of Civis Bononiae's manuscript made. Now in Modena.

1454 Living chess played in Morostica, Italy for the hand of a lady.

1457.05 Charles, Duke of Orleans, wins a rare chess manuscript.

1460 Charles the Bold (1433-77) considered the best player of his time.

1464 statute included chessmen in a list of goods which were no onger to be imported.

1465 Charles D'Orleans d. Chess player and father of Louis XII.

1465 Orleans, Charles d' died. French prince and chessplyer.

1467 BALLET; Colonna's Hypnerotomachia Poliphili describes chess balet.

1470 INNOCENT MORALITY published. 1st printed reference to chess.

1471 Gottingen manuscript published. 1st work devoted to modern chess.

1472 HARDBACK; 1st hardback book dealing with chess published.

1472 MORALITY; 1st printing of the Gesta Romanorum morality, in Latin.

1474 Caxton (1422-1491) publishes 'the game and playe of chesse.'

1474.12 Gottingen manuscript in the hands of King Alfonso V of Portugal.

1475 CHESS; Beginning of modern chess starts in southern Europe.

1475 Fers replaced by the queen and the aufin replaced by the bishop.

1476 CHARLES; At Louvaine, Charles the Bold forbids cards & dice, but not chess.

1477 Charles the Bold died.

1480 ? Damiano, Pedro born in Odemira, Portugal. Wrote 1st chess book in Italian.

1485 GAME; 1st known modern chess game recorded.

1490 En passant is introduced.

1490 PAINTING; 1st chess painting 'the chess players,' by a Venetian artist.

1490 VIDA; Marco Girolamo Vida born.

1492 Ferdinand played chess while Columbus negotiated.

1495 BOOK; 1st practical chess book printed, by the Catalan Vicent treatise on openings.

1495 INQUISITION; During the Inquisition, living chess was played.

1495 Vicent publishes his Catalan chess book, 1st practical chess book to be printed.

1496 BOOK; Oldest surviving book dealing with practical play printed by Lucena; Repeticion de Amores.

1497 Lucena writes 1st printed book on chess playing; dedicated to Prince Juan.

1498 Mennel presents manuscript to Emperor Maximilian I that chess is a game of skill.

1500 FIRDEWSI; World's longest poem, by Firdewsi, recounts how chess was invented.

1500 JEWS; Chess becomes a recognized pastime for Jews on the Sabbath.

1500 SCACHS; The Catalan Scachs d'amor chess poem written.

1503 Arabic manuscript (F)

1503 Firdewsi completes a chess book which includes Dilaram's mate.

1509 JAVA; 1st Portuguese expedition off Malacca. The Javans recognized chess

1510 Vida writes his poem, Scacchia Ludus, the 1st mention of a goddess of chess.

1512 BOOK; 1st chess book to be published in Italy, by Damiano in Rome. 2nd extant chess book.

1512 Damiano doesn't mention medieval chess.

1512 Damiano says chess was invented by Xerxes (Axedrez is Sp for chess).

1512 Manuscript copied by Guarini at Rome was last Italian collection of medieval chess.

1513 Vida writes chess poem Scacchia Ludus.

1516 CASTIGLIONE; Book of the Courtier written by Castiglione. Mentions chess.

1518 DAMIANO; 2nd printing of Damiano's book, Questo libro, printed in Rome.

1520 LEYDEN; Lucas von Leyden paints THE CHESSPLAYERS, showing Courier chess.

1522 VASSILI; Clergy ordered not to play chess by Vassili III.

1524 DAMIANO; 3rd printing of Damiano's book.

1525 SCACCHORUM; Unauthorized version of SCACCHORUM LIBER published in Florence.

1525 VIDA; Scacchia ludus by Vida published in Lyons; pirate version.

1527 Vida published SCACCHIA LUDUS, a famous poem on chess, Rome.

1528 Boi, Paolo born in Syracuse, Italy. 16th century leading player.

1530 Ruy Lopez b. in Zafra, Spain. Spanish priest & leading player.

1533 Atahualpa, inca emperor of peru, imprisoned and learns chess.

1535 ? Ceron, Alfonso born in Granada.

1536 Egenolff publishes updated SCHACHZABEL by Mennel in Franfort.

1536 Egenolff; Cessole morality by Egenolff at Franfurt mentions new chess.

1537 French pamphlet containing medieval chess problems; last medieval reference.

1542 LEONARDO; Giovanni Leonardo born in Calaria. Nicknamed Il Puttino (The Boy).

1544 Damiano, Pedro died in Portugal. Wrote 1st chess book in Italian.

1548 POLERIO; Giulio Polerio born in Lanciano, Italy.

1549 Boi defeats Pope Paul III in a chess match.

1549 Valladolid; Cessole's morality published at Valladolid. Last Spanish version.

1550 Arabic manuscript (Q)

1550 Arabic manuscript (RAS)

1550 CLUB; 1st chess club, organized in Italy.

1550 SYLVESTER; Protohierarch Sylvester denounces chess.

1550 Valdiviesco, Don Antonio de, Bishop of Nicaragua, assassinated while playing chess in his palace at Leon.

1551 Cessole's morality in dutch published at Louvain the last version.

1551 Ivan IV of Russia bans chess. Civil code called Hundred Chapters.

1555 Castling is introduced.

1560 DAMIANO; French version of Damiano's book published in Paris by Gruget.

1560 Ruy Lopez visits Rome and defeats all the players.

1561 CASTLING; Last time castling was 2 separate moves.

1561 Ruy Lopez proposes the 50-move rule to claim a draw.

1561 Ruy Lopez writes his book on chess. Introduces the word gambit. (Alcala, 1561)

1562 BOOK; 1st instructional book, Damiano translation, published in London.

1562 St Teresa, a Spanish reformer, includes chess in her writings.

1564 Damiano's book reprinted in Venice.

1565 ? MANTIA; Orazio Gianutio Della Mantia, chess author, born in Turin.

1566 VIDA; Marcus Vida died. Chess poet and Bishop of Alba.

1569 Damianio's book reprinted in English.

1570 SALVIO; Alessandro Salvio b. Neapolitan author. Best analyst of his time.

1570 ? Gianutto della Mantia, Horatio born in Italy. Author of Italian chess book.

1571 Arabic manuscript (S)

1572 Ruy lopez defeats several eminent players in Rome.

1573.07.12 Carrera, Pietro born in Militello, Sicily. Player and author.

1574 Boi and Leonardo beat Lopez and Ceron in presence of King Phillip II.

1574 Polerio records the important opening variations of his time.

1574 TOURNAMENT; 1st documented chess competion, played in Madrid.

1575 Arabic manuscript (R)

1575 Leonardo beats Ruy Lopez in Madrid.

1575 PLAGUE; After the Plaque of Cremona, all games except chess were banned.

1575.08.22 BOI; King of Spain writes letter of recommendation for Boi.

1576 Boi taken prisoner, but wins his freedom playing chess.

1579 Selenus, Gustavus born.

1579 Sukaikir is the last write on the older muslim game of chess.

1579.04.10 August der Jungere, Duke of Brunswick-Luneburg (Gustavus Selenus) born in Dannenberg, Germany.

1580 Catherine de Medici of France is a keen chess player.

1580 Ruy lopez died.

1581 RUSSIA; Letter from Poland says that Russians are strong players.

1581 Wilcox writes A Glasse for Gamesters, defending chess.

1583 Actius writes that chess is a game of skill, not gambling.

1583 QUEEN; Italian lawyer recommends notifying player when queen is attacked.

1584 Ivan the Terrible dies while starting a game of chess.

1584 Lopez's book translated into Italian by Tarsia and published in Venice.

1584 Polerio writes about Lopez, Boi, and Leonardo from Madrid.

1586 Leonardo poisoned.

1587 SHOGI; Japanese chess (shogi) played

1590 Polerio plays the 1st recorded King's Gambit.

1590 Polerio's manuscript mentions Caro Kann and Greco Counter Gambit.

1590 Russian book on regulations forbade chess in Russia.

1594 Poleriop dedicates chess treatise to duke of Sora.

1597 Book published by Gianutio dealing with openings and problems. Published in Turin.

1597 VIDA; 1st English version of Vida's Scacchia ludus.

1598 Boi, Paolo poisoned in Naples, Italy and died.

1598 James VI of Scotland writes Basilikon Doron and mentions chess.

1600 Castling established as a single move; still regional variations.

1600 Greco, Gioacchino born in Celico, Italy. Great 17th century Italian player.

1600 Nilakantha writes the BHAGAVANTABHASKARA, which has a chess section

1600 PRO; Appearance of professional players who made their living at chess.

1600 Stalemate in England is a win for the side whose King is stalemated

1604 Salvio publishes the 1st comprehensive chess book, in Naples; Trattato.

1605 Ohashi-Sokei appointed chief shogi player in Japan.

1612 Arabic manuscript (Y)

1612 Buoncompagno, Duke of Sora and illegitimate son of Pope Gregory XIII, leading Italian chess patron.

1612 Polerio died.

1612 Salvio wrote a chess tragedy in verse (La Scaccaide).

1613 SHAKESPEARE; Chess on stage in Shakespeare's The Tempest (Miranda playing Ferdinand).

1614 Don Quixote published; refers to chess.

1614 SAUL; Arthur Saul's FAMOUS GAME OF CHESSE PLAY published. Thought Xerxes invented chess.

1614 Stalemate was a loss according to A. Saul of England.

1616 Selenius publishes the earliest German book on openings, in Leipzig. (Lopez's book)

1617 Carrera prints a book on all aspects of chess (Gioco Degli Scacchi).

1617 Carrera suggests enlarging the chessboard to 10 x 8.

1617 Carrera suggests new piece, the champion (combines rook and knight).

1619 Greco compiles a manuscript on openings to a patron in Rome.

1620 CASTLING; Modern version of castling established in France.

1621 Burton writes Anatomy of Melancholy and mentions chess.

1621 Greco wins 5,000 crowns at the Court of the Duke of Lorraine, Paris.

1622 Greco went to London where he was robbed of his 5,000 crowns.

1622 PLAY; Chess used in a play caled THE SPANISH CURATE.

1623 Greco began the practice of giving complete games.

1623 Greco presents chess manuscript to Nicholas Montstephen.

1624 Greco defeats all opponents at the court of Philip IV.

1624 Middleton's play suppressed by James I & Middleton went to prison.

1624 PLAY; A play, "A Game of Chess" by Thomas Middleton, written. Anti-Spanish.

1625 History of St Demys Abbey saying Charlegmane gave them a chess set.

1630 Charles I is a chess addict, spending all his time at chess.

1633 Ecclesiastical lawyers declare chess as legal.

1634 Greco, Gioacchino died in the West Indies; strongest player of his day.

1634 Salvio publishes an account of Leonardo da Cutri, IL PUTTINO.

1634 Salvio republishes his Trattato; attacked Carrera.

1634 Salvio starts a chess academy in Naples.

1635 Louis XIII was a chess addict.

1636.06.29 Hyde, Thomas, chess historian, born in Billingsley, England.

1640 CASTLING; Modern version of castling established in England.

1640 CHARLES; King Charles I of England is a keen chessplayer.

1640 MATE; 1st mention of Scholar's mate in 2nd edition of Saul's chess book.

1640 Salvio died.

1641 AMERICA; 1st mention of chess in America, in a history of Dutch settlers.

1643 Civil War pamphlet called The Game at Chess published.

1647 Charles I was playing chess when the Scots surrendered.

1647.09.18 Carrera, Pietro died in Messina, Italy. Sicilian historian & antiquarian.

1649 ALEXEI; The Tsar Alexei punished chessplayers by whipping and prison.

1650 CORRES; Venetian merchant conducts a corr. game against Slovenia player.

1651.05.13 STROBECK; Frederick William I of Prussia gives chess board to town of Strobeck.

1652 COFFEE HOUSE; 1st coffee house opened in London. Chess was played there.

1654 Cunningham, Alexander born in Scotland. Diplomat and historian. Cunningham gambit.

1655 Cunningham, Alexander born in Scotland. Classical scholar.

1656 BEALE; ROYALL GAME OF CHESS PLAYE, by Beale, 1st published smothered mate.

1656 GRECO; Earliest edition of Greco's work published, in English.

1658 Khalifa writes Arabic bibliography; has catalog of chess books

1660 JEHAN; The Shah Jehan builds a chess palace.

1663.04.23 TSAR; Chess sets presented to the Tsar.

1665 ABU; Earlist dating of Abu 'l-fath manuscript.

1666 Selenus died.

1666.09.17 August der Jungere, Duke of Brunswick-Luneburg (Gustavus Selenus) died in Wolfenbuttel, Germany.

1667 SACCHERI; Giovanni Girolamo Saccheri born. Played 3 games blindfold.

1669 Greco's manuscripts published in Paris.

1669 MIKHAILOVITCH; Tsar Alexei Mikhailovitch orders 10 sets of chessmen.

1670 Cafe de la Regence opened in Paris. Closed in 1916.

1672 BOOK; Next English book since 1656, a re-issue of Saul and Barbier.

1675 Leibniz, the german philosopher, played chess.

1680 ACADEMY; A chess academy was conducted at Fountainbleau.

1683 Piacenza writes book describing flank openings as fianchetti.

1685 RUSSIA; Muscovite embassy to Louis XIV defeated French players in Paris.

1686 Tsar liberates man from confinement whose crime was playing chess and swearing.

1687 SIAM; 1st account of chess in Siam by La Loubere, envoy to Louis XIV

1689 Peter the Great born.

1690 ASPERLING; 'Traite de Lausanne' written by B. Asperling.

1690 Books on the origin of chess published in Naples by Marco Severino.

1690 KING'S LEAP; The medieval's king leap makes its last appearance in the 'Traite'.

1690 OPENINGS; 1st time openings are classified in an orderly way.

1692 Slaughter's coffee house in London founded for chessplayers.

1694 Hyde publishes the 1st scholarly attempt of oriental chess origins, De Ludis Orientalibus.

1695 ? Bertin, Joseph born at Castelmoron-sur-Lot. Chess author.

1697 Herbelot's BIBLIOTHEQUE ORIENTALE, gives some chess history.

1698 GENTIL; TRAITE DES LAUSANNE by Gentil published. 1st appearance of QGCG.

1698 LOLLI; Giambattista Lolli born in Nonantola. Chess author.

1700 Payagunda writes CHATURANGAVINODA (The Game of Chess)

1700 Peter the Great cancels a ban on chess.

1700 Slaugter's Coffee House was center of London until 1770.

1702 LEGAL; M. de Kermar, Sire de Legal, born. Philidor's teacher.

1702.02.18 Hyde, Thomas died in Oxford, England. Oriental scholar. Establised Indian origin of chess.

1705 Liebniz takes interest in chess.

1705 STAMMA; Phillip Stamma born. Chess player from Aleppo. Interpreter of Oriental languages.

1706 CAZE; M. Caze writes an unpublished manuscript on the King's Gambit.

1706 FRANKLIN; Benjamin Franklin born. Wrote 'Morals of chess'.

1707 Cunningham, Alexander originates the Bertin Gambit, published by Bertin in 1735.

1709 Charles XII, King of Sweden, plays chess.

1711 PROHIBITED; chess is prohibitted in Frankfort for 14 years after the Great Fire.

1715 CLUB; 1st chess club in England at Slaughter's in London.

1715 Cozio, Carlo born in Italy. Count of Montiglio and chess author.

1718 Charles XII died. King of Sweden who played chess.

1718 Grotto beat English Admiral Byng in Naples.

1718 RIO; Domenico del Rio, the anonymous modenese, born.

1718 del Rio, Ercole born in Guiglia, Italy. Author.

1719 Feret, in a paper to the French Academy, supports Indian origin of chess.

1719.11.09 PONZIANI; Domenico Ponziani born in Modena, Italy. Prof. of Civil Law, Canon of the Cathedral, vicar.

1722 Three-handed chess and board invented by Marinelli in Naples.

1723 GROTTO; D. Scipone del Grotto died. Leading player of Naples. Priest from Salerno.

1723 Sicilian Defense played in Naples by Severino.

1726.09.07 Philidor born at Dreux near Paris. 18th century master. Wrote 23 operas.

1728 BEUMONT; Charles Chevalier d'Eon de Beumont born. Fr. diplomat & chessplayer.

1728 Eon de Beaumont, Charles born. (d'eon) Transvestite.

1730.12 Cunningham, Alexander died at the Hague. Classical scholar.

1733 Rousseau becomes interested in chess. Writes about it in his Confessions.

1733.09.15 Short Essay on the Game of Chess appears in the Craftsman.

1734 KEMPELEN; Wolfgang von Kempelen, inventor of the first automaton, born.

1735 BERTIN; THE NOBLE GAME OF CHESS by Bertin is 1st worthwhile English book.

1736 Philidor learns how to play chess.

1736.12.19 Bruhl, John (Hans) born in Wiederau, Germany. Gave support to Philidor. Minister of Saxony.

1736 ? Bertin, Joseph died. Author of THE NOBLE GAME OF CHESS.

1737 Cunningham, Alexander died in London; Diplomat and historian. Cunningham gambit.

1737 Stamma publishes a chess book in Paris. 1st book using standard notation. Essai. (Murray, 847)

1738 Philidor writes opera, performed at Versailles.

1740 Legall teaches chess to Philidor. Legal starts with Rook odds.

1740 Philidor leave choir of Chapel Royal.

1741 Stamma's book published in French at The Hague.

1742 Rousseau meets Legal and Philidor at the Cafe Maugis.

1743 BOARD; Chess played on a board 14 by 10 in London. Invented by the Duke of Rutland.

1743 Philidor and Legal playing on even level.

1744 Philidor plays 2 opponents blindfold in Paris at age 18.

1745 Atwood, George born in England. Played many games with Philidor. Distinguished mathematician.

1745 HOYLE; 1st edition of Hoyles games published, with a chess section.

1745 Stamma publishes 'the noble game of chess' in algebraic notation. Published in London.

1745.12 Philidor earns a living by teaching and playing chess at The Hague.

1746 JONES; Sir William Jones born. Translated 1st Sanskrit reference to chess

1746.02.15 Heinse, Wilhelm born in Ilmenau, Germany. Wrote about Anastasia's mate.

1747 Philidor defeats Stamma in a match at Slaughter's in London. 10 games.

1747 Philidor visits England under the auspices of Sir Janssen, strongest English player.

1747 Twiss, Richard born. Chess author.

1748 Philidor introduces the modern rule of numbering each move and its reply with the same number.

1748 Philidor writes L'ANALYSE DU JEU DES ESCHECS. Lord Sandwich orders 10 copies.

1748 Stein, Elias born. Chess tutor of Dutch royalty.

1748 Voltaire and Emperor Frederick II of Prussia play chess.

1749 Philidor publishes ANALYZE DES ESCHECS in London, most important chess book to date.

1750 Arabic manuscript (Z)

1750 Del Rio publishes a chess book. 1st on the Scotch opening.

1750 GRECO; CHESS MADE EASY, an English edition of Greco's work, published.

1750 Legal's mate introduced by Legal against Saint Brie.

1750 PHILIDOR; English editon of Philidor's book published. Called Chess Analyzed.

1750 Philidor gives chess exhibitions for Frederick the Great.

1750 Philidor plays 3 games blindfold in Berlin, winning all 3.

1750 king leap ended in Spain and Portugal.

1751 Philidor plays 3 blindfold games simultaneously in Berlin.

1752 Chess manuscript presented to Gottingen University by F. Borner.

1754 Battilor, Stefano died.

1754.09 Philidor returns to France after an absence of 9 years.

1755 Article on chess in Diderot's ENCYCLOPEDIE.

1755 Philidor defeats Legall in France at the Cafe de la Regence.

1755 Stamma died.

1760 Rousseau plays Prince de Conti, winning 2 games.

1761 Hoyle publishes essay on chess (Murray 850).

1762 Franklin plays Bartram (game - CR 1/62,18)

1763 Caissa, the muse or goddess of chess, created by Sir William Jones.

1763 FIANCHETTO; Modern usage of fianchetto 1st described by Lolli.

1763 JONES; Sir William Jones writes the poem Caissa.

1763 Lolli publishes a 632 page compendium of chess.

1763.06.19 Allgaier, Johann born in Schussenried, Germany. Tutored the Emperor's sons.

1764 LAMBE; HISTORY OF CHESS by Lambe published in London.

1766 Alexandre, Aaron born in Hohenfeld, Bavaria.

1766 COZIO; 4-part 2-volume IL GIUOCO DEGLI SCACCHI by Cozio completed.

1767 Hyde's Latin work on the history of chess reprinted as 2nd volume.

1769 Automaton, first was the Turk.

1769 Hoyle dies.

1769 Lolli died.

1769 Ponziani publishes a practical chess guide to chess.

1769 Von Kempelen's The Turk is the 1st great cabinet illusion.

1770 Cochrane, James born in England. Wrote a book on the Muzio Gambit in 1829.

1770 Pratt, Peter born. Chess author.

1770 Turk 1st exhibited in Vienna at the court of Maria Theresa at Vienna.

1770 club formed at the Salopian Coffee House in England.

1771 Philidor plays chess at the Salopian Coffee-house.

1771 THEATRE; Chess is used in the theater in LE BOURRU BIENFAISSANT.

1772 Coxe sees 4-handed chess in Russia. 1st reference to 4-handed chess.

1772 Jones, Sir William publishes his Poems (Oxford), including Caissa.

1772 Maelzel, John Nepomucene born in Ratisbon, Bavaria. Turk owner.

1772 Parsloe's, a chess club in London, founded. Closed in 1825.

1772 Philidor returns to London.

1772 SARRATT; Jacob Sarratt born. 1st professional to teach chess in England.

1773 PLAY; Chess used in Goethe's 1st play.

1774 BOOK; Oldest Danish chess book (Murray, 854).

1774 Parsloe's CC founded in England. Limited to 100 members. (Murray 863)

1775 CATHERINE; Prince Potemkin and Catherine the Great play chess.

1775 TRAITES DES AMATEURS published by Bernard, Carlier, Leger, Verdoni.

1775.02 Philidor gives chess lessons at Parsole's for 1 crown.

1776.12.26 RALL; British General Rall died in Battle of Trenton. Was playing chess.

1777 Gauss born. Chessplayer. Solved the 8 queens problem.

1777 PHILIDOR; 2nd edition of Philidor's book, ANALYZE, in French and English.

1777.06 d'Eon de Beaumont subscribes to Philidor's new book edition.

1779 ROGET; Peter Roget b. Devised 1st poecket set. Wrote the Thesaurus.

1779 RUTLAND; Duke of Rutland's chess invented using a 14 x 10 board.

1780 Cotter of England 1st plays the Allgaier Gambit of the KGA.

1780 Cozio, Carlo died in Italy. Author.

1780.03.07 Deschapelles, Alexandre born in Ville d'Avray, France.. Lost his right arm in a war.

1781 RECORD; 1st recording of games systematically, by Atwood.

1781 Vezin, Charles born in Hanover. Philadelphia's best chess player.


1782.03.07 Butrimov, Ivan born in St Petersburg. Published 1st Russian chess book in 1821,

1782.05.28 Philidor plays Count Bruhl and Bowdler blindfold, simultaneously.

1783 CLUB; Paris starts chess club under patronage of Louis XVIII.

1783 Franklin plays the Turk in Paris.

1783 TURK; 2nd performance of the Turk, in Vienna for Emperor Joseph II.

1783.05.08 Philidor plays 3 games simultaneously, blindfolded. Age 57. (won 2, drew 1)

1784 BOOK; Oldest Swedish book, Kort Afhandling, is published by Konigstedt.

1784 O-O; Moses Hirschel introduces the o-o and o-o-o symbol. (Murray, 848).

1784 Kempelen brings The Turk to Britain.

1784 Thicknesse; 'The automaton chessplayer, exposed' by Thicknesse, published in London.

1785 Frederick the Great plays the Turk.

1786.12 Frankin publishes his 'Morals of Chess' in COLUMBIAN MAGAZINE.

1787 Barrington write An Historical Disquisition on the Game of Chess.

1787 MOURET; Jacques Mouret born. Turk operator. Nephew of Philidor.

1787 Twiss writes book called Chess (volume 1) anonymously.

1787.10.09 LEWIS; William Lewis, English player, b. in Birmingham. Operated the Turk.

1788 Philidor playing at 62 giving knight odds.

1789 Racknitz builds a duplicate turk. Publishes book exposing the Turk.

1789 Stein publishes opening book; analyzes the Dutch defense.

1789 Twiss writes Chess (vol 2).

1790 JONES; Sir William Jones writes On the Indian Game of Chess.

1790 PHILIDOR; 3rd edition of Philidor's book published.

1790 Philidor plays at age 64 blindfold, simultaneously at pawn odds.

1790 ROOK; 1st known double rook sac made by Bowdler against Conway, London.

1790.01.27 Evans, William, inventor of the Evans gambit, born in Pembroke, Wales.

1791 BOOK, RUSSIA; 1st chess book published in Russia.

1792 Legall died. Philidor's teacher.

1793 Irwin writes Account of the Chinese Game of Chess.

1794 Douce writes EUROPEAN NAMES OF CHESSMEN in Archaeologia, London

1794 JONES; Sir William Jones died. Sanskrit translater

1794.02.12 PETROFF; Alexander Petroff b. in Viserovo, Russia. 1st strong Russian player.

1794.02.23 Philidor plays several blindfold, simultaneously at age 68.

1795 ALLGAIER; 1st German chess manual, published by Allgaier, in Vienna.

1795 BURMA; 1st account of Burmese chess in Syme's ACCOUNT OF AN EMBASSY TO THE KINGDOM OF AVA.

1795 Turkish chess manuscript with 128 chess problems; now in Berlin

1795.06.20 Philidor's last blindfold performance.

1795.07.27 Bledow, Ludwig, founder of the Pleiades, born in Berlin.

1795.08.05 PHILIDOR; Last known game of Philidor. Still winning at age 69 with pawn odds.

1795.08.31 Philidor died in London. Age 69.

1796 Atwood plays chess against Verdoni.

1796 Muhammad-khan, Shir wrote SARDARNAMA.

1796 NEWHAM; Samuel Newham, England's leading provincial player, born.

1796.07.15 Ponziani died.

1797 Bourdonnais, Louis Charles de la, born in Reunion Island.

1797 Morosi makes an automaton for Ferdinand III, Duke of Tuscany.

1797 automaton is a center in a play.

1797 de Labourdonnais, Louis born in La Reunion.

1797.01.21 Calvi, Iganzio born in Reggio Emilia, Italy. Italian player and composer.

1798 Morosi makes an automaton and displays it in Paris.

1798 PRETI; Jean-Loius Preti b. Chess writer. Started LA STRATEGIE.

1798.02.04 Cochrane, John, born in England. Scottish player. Founder of the romantic style.

1798.04.28 Forbes, Duncan born in Kinnaird, Scotland. Scottish writer on chess history.

1798.05.21 McDonnell, Alexander b. Belfast. Best player in England around 1830.

1799 Cox publishes book on Burma Game of chess.

1799 Durand, Philippe born in Fresnay-la-Mere. Wrote 1st book devoted to the practical endgame.

1799.11.25 Agnel, Hyacinth born in NY City. Author.

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