Sponsor of the 1903 Monte Carlo tournament. He invited Tchigorin to play but later paid him 1,500 francs (greater than 3rd prize money) not to play because Tchigorin had published analysis of one of the Prince's games, pointing out he had made gross errors. A valuable art object was to go to the winner of a short match between the 1st and 2nd place finishers (Tarrasch and Maroczy). The players wanted a play for money also. This annoyed the Prince who gave the art object to the 3rd place finisher (Pillsbury).
DAKE, ARTHUR (1910- )
Oldest living grandmaster (1986). He became a bridge toll collector, then a highway auto controller, and finally an automobile inspector for the state of Oregon.
DALY, HARLOW B. (1883-1979)
Perhaps the oldest person to win a state chess championship. In 1968 he won the Championship of Maine at age 85. He had previosly won in 1961 at the age of 77 and in 1965 at the age of 81.
Cardinal bishop of Ostia who wrote to Pope Alexander II in 1061 urging the pope to forbid chess from the clergy and to punish a bishop for wasting his time playing chess in the evenings.
Author of Questo Libro e da imparare giocave a scachi, the first chess book in Italy. It was written in Italian and Spanish and was the first bestseller of the modern game of chess. It went through eight editions in 50 years.
DEAF AND DUMB
The first team championship for the deaf was held in Norway in 1953. The first World Championship for the Deaf and Dumb was held in Poland in 1956 and won by Svaversky of Czechoslovakia.
DEAN OF AMERICAN CHESS
Title of George Koltanowski.
DEAN OF NEW ENGLAND CHESS
Title of Harry Lyman
DEATH OF CHESS PLAYERS
Georgy Agzamov (1954-1986) died after falling down between two rocks at a beach. Curt Von Bardeleben (1861-1924) committed suicide by jumping out of an upper window of his boarding home. Efim Bogoljobov (1889-1952) died of a heart attack after a simultaneous exhibition. Jose Capablanca (1888-1942) died of a stroke after watching a skittles game at the Manhattan Chess Club. Edgar Colle (1897-1932) died after an operation for a gastric ulcer. Nikolai Grigoriev (1895-1938) died after an operation for appendicitis. George Mackenzie (1837-1891) died after an overdose of morphine. Frank Marshall (1877-1944) died of a heart attack after leaving a chess tournament in Jersey City. Johannes Minckwitz (1843-1901) committed suicide by throwing himself in front of a train. Paul Morphy (1837-1884) died of a stroke while taking a cold bath. Harry Pillsbury (1872-1906) died of syphillis. Nicholas Rossolimo (1910-1975) died of head injuries after falling down a flight of stairs in Manhattan. Pierre Saint-Amant (1800-1872) died after falling from a horse and carriage. Carl Schlechter (1874-1918) died from pneumonia and starvation. Vladimir Simagin (1919-1968) died of a heart attack while playing in a chess tournament. Herman Steiner (1905-1955) died of a heart attack after a game from the California State Championship. Frederick Yates (1884-1932) died in his sleep from a leak in a faulty gas pipe connection. Alexander Zaitsev died of thrombosis after a minor operation to remedy a limp by having one leg lengthened. Johann Zukertort (1842-1888) died of a stroke while playing chess at a London coffee house.
Once the strongest chess playing computer in the world. It searched approximately 2 million chess positions per second. Deep Thought became the first computer to defeat a grandmaster in tournament play by defeating Bent Larsen at the 1988 U.S. Open. Deep Thought tied for first place in the U.S. Open with Tony Miles. Deep Thought became the world computer champion in 1989 and defeated David Levy in a match later that year.
The first demonstration board was designed in 1857 by Lowenthal. The first use of a demonstration board in a World Championship match was for the Steinitz-Zukertort match in 1886.
DENKER, ARNOLD (1914- )
A onetime boxer (won three successive Golden Gloves bouts by knockouts) who won the 1944 U.S. Chess Championship. In 1942 he beat Reshevsky on time in the U.S. Championship. While spectators watched, the tournament director (Walter Stephens) mistakenly declared that Denker's time had expired. He was looking at the clock backwards and refused to change is decision, which ultimately gave Reshevsky the title. Denker once appeared in an advertisement for Camel cigarettes. He received an Honorary Grandmaster title in 1981. He once played 100 oppponents in 7.33 hours.
The Danish kings, Knut V and Valdemar, were playing chess when attacked. Knut was killed but Valdemar escaped by using the chessboard as a shield. In 1250 King Eric Plowpenny was captured while playing chess and later executed.
DESCHAPELLES, ALEXANDRE (1780-1847)
Probably the strongest player in the world from 1810 to 1820. He claimed to have mastered chess in three days of study. He lost his right arm fighting the Prussians. He gave up chess and took up whist when he could no longer beat his opponents at odds. George Perigal, after interviewing him, wrote: "M. Deschapelles is the greatest chess player in France; M. Deschapelles is the greatest whist player in France; M. Deschapelles is the greatest billiards player in France; M. Deschapelles is the greatest pumpkin-grower in France; M. Deschapelles is the greatest liar in France."
Leading chess periodical in Germany. It is the oldest chess magazine still in existence. It was founded in 1846 by Bledow. It was not published from 1945 to 1950.
DE VERE, CECIL (1845-1875)
First official British Chess Champion (1866) who won the title at age 21. He remained the youngest titleholder for over a century. His real name was Valentine Brown and he was born on Valentine's Day. He died of tuberculosis at the age of 29.
Dice were used between the 10th and 14th century to determine which piece should be moved.
The most famous of the Shatranj compositions.
In 1963 a wife of a chessplayer in Milan filed for divorce because he was so obsessed with chess that he refused to work and support their two children. The court ruled that Mrs. Edvige Ruinstein was entitled to a separation from her husband.
DLUGY, MAX (1966- )
Winner of the 1985 World Junior Champion. In 1990 he became the first Grandmaster to be elected President of the U.S. Chess Federation. In 1985 at the age of 19, he advanced to the interzonals, the youngest U.S. player since Fischer.
A former British Junior Correspondence Champion. In the 1985-86 British Ladies Correspondence Chess Championship, Nick Down entered as Miss Leigh Strange and won the event. He was later caught and admitted his deception was a prank that got out of hand. He was later banned from the British Correspondence Chess Association.
The first time a draw counted a half point was the Dundee International in 1867. Up until 1952, the USCF Laws of Chess stated that draws could not be accepted by mutual consent until 30 moves were made.
Nickname of Carl Schlechter. He drew half of his games during his tournament career. However, the title should probably go to O'Kelly de Galway who drew all his nine games at Beverwijk in 1957, drew seven out of nine at Beverwijk in 1958, and drew all nine games at Beverwijk in 1959.
Up to 1867 tournament games that were drawn had to be replayed. The 1929 International Rules of Chess and the 1939 USCF rules required players to play a minimum of 30 moves before agreeing to a draw.
Host of the 1986 Chess Olympiad. Holland, Sweden, Norway, Denmark, and the U.S. Virgin Islands boycotted the Olympiad because Israel was excluded. A record 107 countries participated. The previous record was Lucerne 1982 which had 91 countries.
DUCHAMP, MARCEL (1887-1968)
Renowned artist (one of the founders of Dadaism, surrealism, and cubism) and chess player who used chess themes in many of his paintings. In 1927 his bride, Lydie, glued all his chess pieces to the board because he spent his honeymoon week studying chess. They were divorced three months later. He played for France on four Olympiads.
Maroczy once challenged Nimzovich to a pistol duel at Bled, 1931.
DURAO, JOAQUIM (1938- )
Portuguese chess player; awarded the International Master title in 1975. He has won the Portuguese championship 13 times.